Schools should consider prohibiting travel to a country or area when the U.S. government cautions against it. Examine government travel advisories and health warnings and follow additional practices to protect your community members.
The State Department uses a system of travel advisories to give U.S. travelers information about the relative safety of different countries. Under this system, which replaced all prior State Department travel warnings and travel alerts, all countries are ranked in one of four levels according to a variety of factors (called “risk indicators”) such as terrorism, crime, natural disasters, wrongful detention, and (increasingly) health concerns:
Level 1: Exercise normal precautions
Level 2: Exercise increased caution
Level 3: Reconsider travel
Level 4: Do not travel
The State Department rarely actually prohibits people from traveling to Level 4 countries. However, in 2017, it restricted U.S. citizens from traveling to North Korea in most circumstances, noting they must apply for a special validation, which is “granted only in very limited circumstances.” Generally, the State Department explains that Level 4 “is the highest advisory level due to greater likelihood of life-threatening risks. During an emergency, the U.S. government may have very limited ability to provide assistance. The Department of State advises that U.S. citizens not travel to the country or to leave as soon as it is safe to do so.”
In addition to the overall travel advisory level for each country, the State Department may issue security alerts with a different advisory level for a specific area or region within a country.
When the State Department bases a travel advisory in whole or in part on health considerations, it relies heavily on, and refers travelers to, travel health notices and related advice — discussed below — from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The State Department reviews Level 1 and Level 2 advisories at least annually and Level 3 and 4 advisories at least every six months.
Travel Health Notices
The CDC issues three levels of travel health notices. The most serious is the Warning Level 3 to avoid nonessential travel because of widespread serious outbreaks of a disease or other public health concerns that are a high risk. In addition to Warning Level 3, the other CDC levels are:
Watch Level 1, Practice Usual Precautions
(“Practice usual precautions for this destination, as described in the Travel Health Notice and/or on the destination page. This includes being up-to-date on all recommended vaccines and practicing appropriate mosquito avoidance.”)
Alert Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions
(“Practice enhanced precautions for this destination. The Travel Health Notice describes additional precautions added, or defines a specific at-risk population.”)
Use Additional Safety Strategies
Use these strategies when planning and undertaking international travel.
Establish a Travel Policy
The policy should cover school-sponsored travel by students, employees, or members of the general public. It should clearly state whether you allow travel to countries or regions identified in a State Department travel advisory or a CDC health warning.
Verify Insurance Coverage
Liability, accident, health, and other insurance policies vary greatly, including whether they cover employees, students, or other travelers. Also, some carriers don’t cover claims or lawsuits brought in foreign countries, and some don’t cover hostilities or acts of terrorism that occur outside the United States. Check with your broker or underwriter to verify coverage.
Use Assumption of Risk and Release Forms
Consider options that let employees or students avoid travel to an area under a travel advisory or warning. To reinforce the trip’s voluntary nature, require students’ parents or guardians (or students themselves if they are no longer minors) to sign an assumption of risk and release form or a similar waiver. The document should confirm that the participant has read and understands the travel advisory or warning and other identified travel risks. Your school’s legal counsel should draft or review all such forms.
Create Evacuation Procedures
Evacuations may become necessary in the event of a medical problem, civil unrest, or other emergency. Ensure options are in place to remove one or more travelers or the entire traveling party. Consider the difficulty of evacuations from remote locations. The local U.S. Embassy or Consulate can provide information and, possibly, resources for safe and swift evacuations. Also, companies such as International SOS will provide evacuation services. Contact these companies during the trip planning process.
Use State Department and U.S. Embassy or Consulate Resources
Ensure each travel abroad trip is registered with the State Department through its Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP), which enables the local embassy or consulate to notify the group in case of an emergency. In addition, provide trip leaders with the contact information and location of the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate while traveling.
Keep Copies of Passports
Collect two copies of each participant’s passport. Trip leaders should keep one in a secure location, such as a safe, while abroad; this will be helpful in proving a participant’s citizenship and identity if a passport is lost or stolen. Keep a readily accessible duplicate at your home campus. Properly dispose of all passport copies after the trip ends.
State Department: High-Risk Area Travelers
State Department: U.S. Students Abroad
This article has been published with permission from United Educators and adapted from the original article, published in February 2023.